Few know that radioactive elements are often used at the beginning of modern genetic engineering. Between 1927 and 1928, American geneticist Lewis Stadler examined and described mutations in barley plants under the influence of X-rays and ultraviolet radiation. Under the influence of his research, experiments have been started in many countries.
In the 50s. The 20th century sought ways of peaceful use of nuclear energy and gained the knowledge of radioactivity. Then the scientists interested in inducing beneficial mutations in commercial plants found support. In the USA, Europe and the USSR, “gamma gardens” were established in which the plants were exposed to gamma radiation.
The existing gamma garden in Japan today.
The distinctive shape of such a garden, the wheel with the posts of various species spreading radially from the center, was used all over the world. A small amount of radioactive material (usually cobalt) was placed in the middle of the garden, and the surrounding plants received equal radiation doses. Growing closest to the usually dry, in the next rows of plants were distorted or weak, but among them there were unique individuals. Such were transplanted into ordinary positions, without the influence of radiation, and multiplied by several generations. If the mutated trait was passed on to generations and was useful for cultivation, the variety was often traded.
This was the way in 1971 a variety of peppermint called Todd’s Mitcham, from which today most of the world’s mint oil comes from. Todd’s Mitcham was resistant to fungal diseases that attacked the roots of dicotyledonous plants (such as potatoes, tomatoes, cotton), which contributed to its commercial success. Another fruit of the gamma gardens is the popular variety of Rio Star grapefruit, grown for intense red color of the pulp and juice.
These early forms of genetic engineering were some form of imitation of mechanisms occurring in nature. Random mutations are the main mechanism for the creation of new species, alongside horizontal gene transfer. The reason for the mutation is to damage the original DNA record during replication (which is an inaccurate process) or under the influence of many chemicals or radiation. Irradiation of plants and sifting of useless …
One might think that the attempt at a hacker attack on the most guarded US Pentagon building for the attacker will end up being very sorry. And yet not all attacks must end up being detained and jailed for many years, because the Pentagon itself encourages them to carry them.
American computer networks are not particularly secure, as confirmed by continuous hacking attacks, most of which are successful. The Pentagon, which is probably also the target of such attacks, wants to strengthen its security and need hackers to do so.
The Department of Defense has set up a pilot program called Hack the Pentagon, which will start this week and last until May 12. At this time, hackers can completely impose attacks on the public side of the Pentagon with impunity, helping to detect vulnerabilities and strengthen protection against unauthorized access.
The Department of Defense assures that no computer systems containing important data will be connected to the network for the duration of the program. There are no first-rate specialists involved, and hackers who want to participate in it will first have to be thoroughly overexposed and their skills will be thoroughly tested. However, if they manage to detect any significant gaps, they can count on cash prizes.
The Pentagon hopes that the program that has just begun will help to strengthen the security to better protect computers in case of real attacks.…
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In the past few years, tablets have somewhat reduced the popularity of laptops, but recently it has become increasingly noticeable by the price increase of manufacturers of the latter, which can make the interest in mobile computing increase again.
Sure, it will happen if more hardware such as the HP Chromebook 11 comes out on the market, which will soon debut at a very affordable price of $ 279. The price is very interesting, but what can we expect in return?
Hardware configuration is not that bad. The laptop has an 11.6-inch display with IPS, dual-core Samsung Exynos processor, 2 GB of RAM and a 16 GB SSD. Components ideal for work, although we can rather forget to play. The drive may look a bit small, but Google offers two hundred years of Google Drive access to 100 GB.
The advantage of the new Chromebook is its small weight of about a kilogram, which is achieved with the use of a magnesium skeleton, which at the same time significantly increases the strength of the chassis.
The computer also has speakers under the full-size keyboard, dual band WiFi and Bluetooth 4.0. The battery lasts about 6 hours, which in this class is the standard result, and is charged with the microUSB port, eliminating the need to carry a special charger.
The HP Chromebook 11 is an interesting alternative to netbooks and will be the perfect tool for working.…
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BAE Systems, the main contractor of British aircraft carrier HMS Queen Elizabeth, has just released a video of maneuvering an unfinished ship at a Scottish shipyard. Operating in such a small space with such a colossus is no small feat for seafarers taking part.
She was transported from the dock where she was born and was baptized (4th of July, a bottle of whiskey by the queen herself) to the place where further finishing works would be carried out.
To remind HMS Queen Elizabeth is the largest ship ever built and served in the Royal Navy, its displacement is 65,000 tons and a length of 280 meters. F-35 Lightning II multi-role fighters will be operated from its deck.…
Powering up is a problem that must be faced by owners and users of electrically powered vehicles. You need to have access to the power grid.
A team of visionaries and designers with Synthesis Design + Architecture has proposed a solution that can be adopted in high sunshine. The skylight umbrella is covered by solar panels. The large surface allows the installation of many photovoltaic cells and at the same time it allows the vehicle to be hidden in the shade.
The project was created at the Volvo competition: “Switch to Pure Volvo” by Pavilion Design. The creator of the project is Alvin Huang, who has won multiple awards at various international design contests. The solar pavilion proposed by him is to be built of carbon fibers, resistant to damage and destruction of polycarbonate and polyethylene plastics in which solar panels will be incorporated.…
The US space agency is working on a fast communication system for rockets that will be flying into space in the future. The most effective solution may be lasers.
In a few decades, humanity will set out to space and begin exploring the planets of our Solar System, and perhaps also go on to other star systems. At that time, an efficient and above all functional communication system will be needed to maintain communication between ships and orbital stations.
Radio waves are not good for this, so NASA is researching space lasers. Laser communication is not new at all, but has been used relatively rarely. However, in the case of space missions, however, become very useful, because it has the ability to transfer data at speeds 100 times higher than the current solutions.
The tremendous bandwidth of such a laser link will be extremely useful for scientific applications, that is, sending large amounts of data, images and movies recorded by astronauts, and spacecraft. For example, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, using radio transmission technology, transmits data at just 6 Mbps. However, if it was equipped with a laser communication system, it would reach a speed of 250 Mbps.…
Apple has been struggling for years to get its smartphones slimmed down to the point where it started to cause problems and bend the casing. This gave the company a great lesson and resulted in a change in approach to the thickness of the iPhone, which in future models will be increased.
Thin and slim smartphone looks undoubtedly smart and modern, but achieving such an effect requires a lot of combining engineers and sometimes fails to avoid problems like the bending iPhone 6. Apple will no longer seek to slim down its flagship model and the new generations will be thicker.
According to recent reports, the iPhone is expected to be about 0.2 millimeters thick, which would be consistent with earlier statements by analysts working for KGI Securities, which recently said the smartphone would be 0.13 to 0.30 thicker. , 2 mm. Interestingly, the greater thickness of the hardware is mainly related to the new Force Touch sensor, which recognizes the pressure of the screen, enabling various options.…